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IMS Guidelines for Developing Accessible Learning Applications Full ToC

IMS Guidelines for Developing
Accessible Learning Applications

version 1.0 white paper

| WGBH | NCAM | SALT PROJECT | IMS GLOBAL LEARNING CONSORTIUM |

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1 Roles and Responsibilities

1.2 Issues with Learning Technologies for People with Disabilities

1.3 Acknowledgements

1.4 Nomenclature

2. Primer on Accessibility

2.1 Disabilities, Functional Limitations, and Accessibility Tips

2.1.1 For People Who Are Blind

2.1.2 For People with Low-Vision

2.1.3 For People with Color Blindness

2.1.4 For People Who Are Hard-of-Hearing or Deaf

2.1.5 For People with Physical Disabilities

2.1.6 For People with Language or Cognitive Disabilities

2.1.7 General Accessibility Improvements

2.2 Tools for Access - Types of Assistive Technologies

2.2.1 Screen Readers

2.2.2 Refreshable Braille Displays

2.2.3 Screen Magnifiers

2.2.4 Adaptive Keyboards

2.2.5 Voice Recognition Software

2.2.6 Single Switches

2.3 Equivalent Access Versus Alternative Access

2.4 Direct Access Versus Compatible Access

3. Principles for Accessibility in Online Distributed Learning

3.1 Allow for Customization Based on User Preference

3.2 Provide Equivalent Access to Auditory and Visual Content Based on User Preference

3.3 Provide Compatibility with Assistive Technologies and Complete Keyboard Access

3.4 Provide Context and Orientation Information

3.5 Follow IMS Specifications and Other Relevant Specifications, Standards, and/or Guidelines

3.6 Consider the Use of XML

4. Using XML for Accessibility

4.1 XML is Customizable and Flexible

4.2 XML Allows for Standardization for Accessibility, Validation, and Well-Formedness

4.3 Recommended XML-Based Languages

4.3.1 XHTML

4.3.2 XML Mark-up and Stylesheets

4.3.3 Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)

4.3.4 Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL)

4.3.5 XML E-Book Formats

4.3.6 Other Mark-up Languages

5. Guidelines for Accessible Delivery of Text, Audio, Images, and Multimedia

5.1 Common Types of Media Delivery and Associated Presentation Formats

5.1.1 Text

5.1.2 Audio

5.1.3 Images

5.1.4 Multimedia

6. Guidelines for Developing Accessible Asynchronous Communication and Collaboration Tools

6.1 Threaded Message Boards

6.2 E-Mail Messaging

6.3 Document Repositories

6.4 Organizers, Schedulers, and Calendars

6.5 Presentation Tools

6.5.1 Microsoft PowerPoint

6.5.2 Alternatives to Microsoft PowerPoint for Accessibility

7. Guidelines for Developing Accessible Synchronous Communication and Collaboration Tools

7.1 Synchronous Text Chat

7.2 Audio-Conferencing

7.3 Video-Conferencing

7.4 Whiteboards

7.5 Multi-User Domain Object Oriented Environments (MOOs)

8. Guidelines for Developing Accessible Interfaces and Interactive Environments

8.1 Interface Controls

8.2 Navigating the Interface

8.3 Forms

8.4 Interactive Exercises: Drag-and-Drop Exercises, Simulations, and Timed Tests

8.5 Interactive Tutorials

8.6 DVDs, Consumer Electronics, and Handheld Devices

8.7 Accessibility Information for Operating Systems and Development Platforms

8.7.1 Microsoft's Windows OS Accessibility

8.7.2 Apple's Macintosh OS Accessibility

8.7.3 Web Accessibility

8.7.4 The Java Platform

8.7.5 Other Operating Systems

9. Guidelines for Testing and Assessment

9.1 Testing and Assessment Challenges

9.2 Principles for the Accessibility of Testing and Assessment

9.2.1 Consider Accessibility Standards from the Earliest Design Stages

9.2.2 Follow Standards for Testing and Assessment That Promote Test Validity

9.2.3 Build a Coherent Raionale for the Assessment

9.2.4 Develop a Reuse Strategy That Includes Test Content, Designs, and More

9.3 Delivery and Authoring Tool Principles for Testing and Assessment

9.4 Content Development Principles for Testing and Assessment

9.4.1 Provide Information about Purpose

9.4.2 Provide Information about Accessibility of Content at Varying Levels

10. Guidelines for Developing Accessible Authoring Tools

11. Guidelines for Topic Specific Accessibility

11.1 Mathematics

11.1.1 Chunking of Mathematical Expressions

11.1.2 Inaccessible Mathematical Notation

11.1.3 Encoding Mathematical Expressions Using MathML

11.1.4 Localized Applications for Mathematical Accessibility

11.1.5 Accessible Mathematical Applications and Devices

11.2 Science

11.2.1 Chemistry

11.2.2 Physics

11.3 Simulations and Immersion

11.4 Robots and Telepresence

11.5 Charts, Diagrams, and Tables

11.5.1 Haptic Perception

11.5.2 Haptic Image Sources

11.5.3 Text Representations of Charts, Diagrams, and Tables

11.6 Geography and Maps

11.7 Music

11.8 Languages

11.8.1 Ruby Annotation as a Solution for Language Accessibility

Appendix A - Legal Issues for Accessible Distance Learning

Appendix B - Resources

About This Document

List of Contributors

Revision History

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